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Would you describe yourself as a task-oriented leader or a relationship-oriented leader? This week, you read about the style and skills approaches to leadership. Consider the styles and skills addressed in this week’s media, Effective Leadership Styles and Find Your Personal Communication Style. Are communication or social interaction skills necessary for every leader? Will a particular style work best in certain situations? Imagine that you work for a large, UK-based pharmaceutical corporation and you have just been assigned to lead a team in a new branch office that is located in Lagos, Nigeria. As the leader, you have to decide whom to hire, how to achieve the first-year goals that have been given to you, and how to create a timeline for key milestones. With these thoughts in mind, for this week’s second discussion, post a 1,000- to 1,500-word response to the following question to the Discussion Board: • How will the concepts addressed in this week’s textbook reading as well as in the articles ‘Developing Advanced Decision-Making Skills in International Leaders and Managers’ and ‘From Experience to Experiential Learning: Cultural Intelligence as a Learning Capability for Global Leader Development’ help you succeed in this new assignment? Developing Advanced Decision- Making Skills in International Leaders and Managers Asila Safi and Darrell Norman Burrell Socially, economically, politically, and technologically, our world is transforming in complex ways that are beyond what we could have fathomed even five years ago. Now, more than ever, managerial decisions have far-reaching consequences in the way that organizations fail or succeed in bridging commerce and compassion, sustainability and profitability, and move from vision to effective strategic implementation. Solving problems, making decisions, and picking the courses of action are the most critical aspects of being in charge because it is risky and very difficult. Bad decisions can damage a career, influence peoples’ lives, and hurt an organization’s performance. But, where do bad decisions come from? In many cases, they can be traced back to the way the decisions were made. Maybe the right questions were not asked. Maybe the right alternatives were not explored or may be the data collected was wrong. Sometimes, the fault of poor leadership decisions lies not in the decision-making process, but rather in the mind of the decision-maker. How does an organizational manager make the correct leadership decisions when the unexpected occurs or the existing plans are insufficient or important organizational core values and goals are threatened? Critical Thinking in decision-making helps the professionals ask relevant questions, gather opinions from various groups, interpret complex problems, and make wise decisions. The development of critical thinking skills in international executives has never been more vital than it is today. The engagement in managerial critical thinking is about learning to apply experience-based, team-based, and formal problemsolving methods to situations. It is essential to develop a keen ability to overcome and become self-aware of biases, false assumptions, myths, and faulty paradigms that can hamper effective decision-making. Executive Summary P E R S P E C T I V E S presents emerging issues and ideas that call for action or rethinking by managers, administrators, and policy makers in organizations KEY WORDS Decision-making Skills Problem-solving Critical Thinking International Leaders VIKALPA • VOLUME 32 • NO 3 • JULY – SEPTEMBER 2007 1 1 Evolving international management challenges like succession planning as the members of the “baby boomer” generation retire, managing employee generational conflict, valuing cultural diversity, and developing adaptive strategy have made decision-making for international managers more perplexing and almost overwhelming. Even with the best strategic planning, there is a likelihood of mishandling a crisis or leadership strategy decision. Consider the myriad of decisionmaking challenges that the leaders in northern Nicaragua, El Salvador, and Honduras faced related to hurricane Felix, which flooded the area with over 15 inches of rain. Think about the decisions that the Mayor of New Orleans had to take when the levies broke from Hurricane Katrina. Think of the leadership decisions that the public managers in government and law enforcement bodies had to take after the terrorist attacks on the train in Spain and London. Consider the challenge of decisionmaking that faced the President of Virginia Tech University in the wake of the shooting massacre. Socially, economically, politically, and technologically, our world is transforming in complex ways that are beyond what we could have fathomed even five years ago. Now, more than ever, managerial decisions have far-reaching consequences in the way that organizations fail or succeed in bridging commerce and compassion, and sustainability and profitability, and move from vision to effective strategic implementation. Solving problems, making decisions, and picking the courses of action are the most critical aspects of being in charge because it is risky and very difficult. Bad decisions can damage a career, influence peoples’ lives, and hurt an organization’s performance. So, where do bad decisions come from? In many cases, they can be traced back to the way the decisions were made. Maybe the right questions were not asked. Maybe the right alternatives were not explored or may be the data collected was wrong. Sometimes, the fault of poor leadership decisions lies not in the decision-making process, but rather in the mind of the decision-maker. The way the human brain works can harm the quality of our decisions (Phillips, 2005). In many organizations, bad decisions often occur by not making a decision at all in a situation that is in need of attention. This can occur in organizations, where responsibility, accountability, blame, and punishment are attached to an action or decision that is not successful while the same level of punishment and blame are usually not levied on individuals who do not take a risk and do not make a decision. How does an organizational manager make the correct leadership decisions when the unexpected occurs, existing plans are insufficient, and important organizational core values and goals are threatened? The development of critical thinking skills in today’s international executives has never been more vital. The engagement in managerial critical thinking is about learning to apply both experience-based, team-based, and formal problem-solving methods to situations. It is essential to develop a keen ability to overcome and become self-aware of biases, false assumptions, myths, and faulty paradigms that can hamper effective decision- making. CRITICAL THINKING: THE CONCEPT The concept of using critical thinking skills is not simple. On the surface, most people assume that the decisions made by intelligent and educated people include critical thinking. In the context of discussion, the activity is more complex. The definition of critical thinking has somewhat changed over time. The following are some examples of attempts to define critical thinking: • …the ability to analyse facts; generate, and organize ideas; defend opinions; make comparisons; draw inferences; evaluate arguments and solve problems (Chance,1986) • …involves analytical thinking for the purpose of evaluating what is read (Hickey, 1990) • …a conscious and deliberate process which is used to interpret or evaluate information and experiences with a set of reflective attitudes and abilities that guide thoughtful beliefs and actions (Mertes,1991) • …active, systematic process of understanding and evaluating arguments. An argument provides an assertion about the properties of some object or the relationship between two or more objects and evidence to support or refute the assertion. Critical thinkers acknowledge that there is no single correct way to understand and evaluate arguments and that all attempts are not necessarily successful (Mayer and Goodchild, 1990) • . . . reasonable reflective thinking focused on deciding what to believe or do (Ennis, 1992). The fact is that everyone has the ability to think about an issue. Most international managers find it extremely challenging to evaluate a written or spoken 2 DEVELOPING ADVANCED DECISION-MAKING SKILLS 2 commentary on a hot topic because both sides of the controversy seem to have good arguments. The critical thinker is able to distinguish high-quality, well-supported arguments from arguments with flaws, poor data, or weak evidence (Diestler, 2004). To understand why using critical thinking skills is so important, one has to have some sense of how human beings process information. We are taught from an early age to make sense out of information and experience by summarizing it, or more technically, to reduce the amount of detail through the use of concepts. The engagement in managerial critical thinking is about learning to apply both experience-based, team-based, and formal problem- solving methods to situations. It is essential to develop a keen ability to overcome and become self aware of biases, false assumptions, myths, and faulty paradigms that can hamper effective decision-making. The development of critical thinking is about learning how to overcome those biases to make better managerial decisions and develop new activities so that they become a part of the permanent leadership behaviour (Bazerman, 2005). “Researchers have been studying the way our minds function in making decisions for half a century. This research, in the laboratory and in the field, has revealed that we use unconscious routines to cope with the complexity inherent in most decisions. These routines, known as heuristics, serve us well in most situations. In judging distance, for example, our minds frequently rely on a heuristic that equates clarity with proximity. The clearer an object appears, the closer we judge it to be. The fuzzier it appears, the farther away we assume it must be. This simple mental shortcut helps us to make the continuous stream of distance judgments required to navigate the world. Researchers have identified a whole series of such flaws in the way we think in making decisions. Some, like the heuristic for clarity, are sensory misperceptions. Others take the form of biases. Still others appear simply as irrational anomalies in our thinking. What makes all these traps so dangerous is their invisibility. Because they are hard-wired into our thinking process, we fail to recognize them even as we fall right into them. For executives, whose success hinges on the many day-to-day decisions they make or approve, the psychological traps are especially dangerous. They can undermine everything from new-product development to acquisition and divestiture strategy to succession planning. While no one can rid his or her mind of these ingrained flaws, anyone can follow the lead of airline pilots and learn to understand the traps and compensate for them,” (Hammond, Keeney and Raiffa, 2006). In most companies, strategic planning is often devoid of real time decision-making. It can sometimes be an exercise in documenting strategies and plan actions that have already been made, often without the benefit of the nuances of a critical thinking decision-making process. The progressive firms are changing their approach to the advanced analysis and assessment of organizational course direction to improve planning, problem-solving, and decision-making (Mankins and Steele, 2006). To understand the value of managerial critical thinking processes in organizations, think about the way that most organizations conduct strategy reviews as formal meetings between the middle and senior level organizational managers. While these reviews are intended to produce a fact-based dialogue, they often amount to a little more than a “dog and pony show.” Senior managers come in for a few days, get a superficial presentation, socialize with the staff, and leave. The middle management spends an inordinate amount of time preparing information to explain or sell to senior manager a course of strategy. The unit hopes to escape with few unanswered questions and an approved course of direction. Accordingly, middle administrators attempt to control the flow of information upward, and senior managers are presented only with the information that shows each department in the best perspective. The departmental successes are show-cased; the opportunities are emphasized; and the threats are omitted or marginalized. This style of planning and decision-making hinders the senior managers from engaging in any detailed information gathering or complex questioning. These quick overview presentations do not provide the type of valuable information that is needed for senior managers to help in critical thinking in problem-solving and decision-making. The most common obstacles to decision-making in large companies are the disagreements among the executives over the past decisions, current alternatives, and even the facts presented to support strategic plans. The leading companies structure their strategy review sessions to overcome these problems (Mankins and Steele, 2006). Pursuing a competitive advantage and improving the quality of service delivery can be a time-consuming and fruitless search through the ever-expanding moun

Would you describe yourself as a task-oriented leader or a relationship-oriented leader? This week, you read about the style and skills approaches to leadership. Consider the styles and skills addressed in this week’s media, Effective Leadership Styles and Find Your Personal Communication Style. Are communication or social interaction skills necessary for every leader? Will a particular style work best in certain situations? 
Imagine that you work for a large, UK-based pharmaceutical corporation and you have just been assigned to lead a team in a new branch office that is located in Lagos, Nigeria. As the leader, you have to decide whom to hire, how to achieve the first-year goals that have been given to you, and how to create a timeline for key milestones. 
With these thoughts in mind, for this week’s second discussion, post a 1,000- to 1,500-word response to the following question to the Discussion Board:
•	How will the concepts addressed in this week’s textbook reading as well as in the articles ‘Developing Advanced Decision-Making Skills in International Leaders and Managers’ and ‘From Experience to Experiential Learning: Cultural Intelligence as a Learning Capability for Global Leader Development’ help you succeed in this new assignment? 

Developing Advanced Decision-
Making Skills in International
Leaders and Managers
Asila Safi and Darrell Norman Burrell
Socially, economically, politically, and technologically, our world is transforming in complex
ways that are beyond what we could have fathomed even five years ago. Now, more than ever,
managerial decisions have far-reaching consequences in the way that organizations fail or
succeed in bridging commerce and compassion, sustainability and profitability, and move from
vision to effective strategic implementation. Solving problems, making decisions, and picking
the courses of action are the most critical aspects of being in charge because it is risky and very
difficult. Bad decisions can damage a career, influence peoples’ lives, and hurt an organization’s
performance. But, where do bad decisions come from? In many cases, they can be traced back
to the way the decisions were made. Maybe the right questions were not asked. Maybe the right
alternatives were not explored or may be the data collected was wrong. Sometimes, the fault of
poor leadership decisions lies not in the decision-making process, but rather in the mind of the
decision-maker.
How does an organizational manager make the correct leadership decisions when the
unexpected occurs or the existing plans are insufficient or important organizational core
values and goals are threatened? Critical Thinking in decision-making helps the professionals
ask relevant questions, gather opinions from various groups, interpret complex problems,
and make wise decisions. The development of critical thinking skills in international
executives has never been more vital than it is today. The engagement in managerial critical
thinking is about learning to apply experience-based, team-based, and formal problemsolving
methods to situations. It is essential to develop a keen ability to overcome and
become self-aware of biases, false assumptions, myths, and faulty paradigms that can hamper
effective decision-making.
Executive
Summary
P E R S P E C T I V E S
presents emerging issues and
ideas that call for action or
rethinking by managers,
administrators, and policy
makers in organizations
KEY WORDS
Decision-making Skills
Problem-solving
Critical Thinking
International Leaders
VIKALPA • VOLUME 32 • NO 3 • JULY - SEPTEMBER 2007 1
1
Evolving international management challenges like
succession planning as the members of the “baby
boomer” generation retire, managing employee
generational conflict, valuing cultural diversity, and developing
adaptive strategy have made decision-making
for international managers more perplexing and almost
overwhelming. Even with the best strategic planning,
there is a likelihood of mishandling a crisis or leadership
strategy decision. Consider the myriad of decisionmaking
challenges that the leaders in northern Nicaragua,
El Salvador, and Honduras faced related to hurricane
Felix, which flooded the area with over 15 inches
of rain. Think about the decisions that the Mayor of New
Orleans had to take when the levies broke from Hurricane
Katrina. Think of the leadership decisions that the
public managers in government and law enforcement
bodies had to take after the terrorist attacks on the train
in Spain and London. Consider the challenge of decisionmaking
that faced the President of Virginia Tech University
in the wake of the shooting massacre.
Socially, economically, politically, and technologically,
our world is transforming in complex ways that
are beyond what we could have fathomed even five
years ago. Now, more than ever, managerial decisions
have far-reaching consequences in the way that organizations
fail or succeed in bridging commerce and compassion,
and sustainability and profitability, and move
from vision to effective strategic implementation. Solving
problems, making decisions, and picking the courses
of action are the most critical aspects of being in charge
because it is risky and very difficult. Bad decisions can
damage a career, influence peoples’ lives, and hurt an
organization’s performance. So, where do bad decisions
come from? In many cases, they can be traced back to
the way the decisions were made. Maybe the right
questions were not asked. Maybe the right alternatives
were not explored or may be the data collected was
wrong. Sometimes, the fault of poor leadership decisions
lies not in the decision-making process, but rather in the
mind of the decision-maker. The way the human brain
works can harm the quality of our decisions (Phillips,
2005).
In many organizations, bad decisions often occur
by not making a decision at all in a situation that is in
need of attention. This can occur in organizations, where
responsibility, accountability, blame, and punishment
are attached to an action or decision that is not successful
while the same level of punishment and blame are usually
not levied on individuals who do not take a risk and do
not make a decision.
How does an organizational manager make the
correct leadership decisions when the unexpected occurs,
existing plans are insufficient, and important organizational
core values and goals are threatened? The
development of critical thinking skills in today’s international
executives has never been more vital. The
engagement in managerial critical thinking is about
learning to apply both experience-based, team-based,
and formal problem-solving methods to situations. It is
essential to develop a keen ability to overcome and
become self-aware of biases, false assumptions, myths,
and faulty paradigms that can hamper effective decision-
making.
CRITICAL THINKING: THE CONCEPT
The concept of using critical thinking skills is not simple.
On the surface, most people assume that the decisions
made by intelligent and educated people include critical
thinking. In the context of discussion, the activity is more
complex. The definition of critical thinking has somewhat
changed over time. The following are some examples
of attempts to define critical thinking:
• ...the ability to analyse facts; generate, and organize
ideas; defend opinions; make comparisons; draw
inferences; evaluate arguments and solve problems
(Chance,1986)
• ...involves analytical thinking for the purpose of
evaluating what is read (Hickey, 1990)
• ...a conscious and deliberate process which is used
to interpret or evaluate information and experiences
with a set of reflective attitudes and abilities that
guide thoughtful beliefs and actions (Mertes,1991)
• ...active, systematic process of understanding and
evaluating arguments. An argument provides an
assertion about the properties of some object or the
relationship between two or more objects and evidence
to support or refute the assertion. Critical
thinkers acknowledge that there is no single correct
way to understand and evaluate arguments and that
all attempts are not necessarily successful (Mayer
and Goodchild, 1990)
• . . . reasonable reflective thinking focused on deciding
what to believe or do (Ennis, 1992).
The fact is that everyone has the ability to think
about an issue. Most international managers find it
extremely challenging to evaluate a written or spoken
2 DEVELOPING ADVANCED DECISION-MAKING SKILLS
2
commentary on a hot topic because both sides of the
controversy seem to have good arguments. The critical
thinker is able to distinguish high-quality, well-supported
arguments from arguments with flaws, poor data,
or weak evidence (Diestler, 2004).
To understand why using critical thinking skills is
so important, one has to have some sense of how human
beings process information. We are taught from an early
age to make sense out of information and experience by
summarizing it, or more technically, to reduce the amount
of detail through the use of concepts. The engagement
in managerial critical thinking is about learning to apply
both experience-based, team-based, and formal problem-
solving methods to situations. It is essential to
develop a keen ability to overcome and become self
aware of biases, false assumptions, myths, and faulty
paradigms that can hamper effective decision-making.
The development of critical thinking is about learning
how to overcome those biases to make better managerial
decisions and develop new activities so that they become
a part of the permanent leadership behaviour (Bazerman,
2005).
“Researchers have been studying the way our minds
function in making decisions for half a century. This
research, in the laboratory and in the field, has revealed
that we use unconscious routines to cope with the
complexity inherent in most decisions. These routines,
known as heuristics, serve us well in most situations.
In judging distance, for example, our minds frequently
rely on a heuristic that equates clarity with proximity.
The clearer an object appears, the closer we judge it to
be. The fuzzier it appears, the farther away we assume
it must be. This simple mental shortcut helps us to make
the continuous stream of distance judgments required
to navigate the world. Researchers have identified a
whole series of such flaws in the way we think in making
decisions. Some, like the heuristic for clarity, are sensory
misperceptions. Others take the form of biases. Still
others appear simply as irrational anomalies in our
thinking. What makes all these traps so dangerous is
their invisibility. Because they are hard-wired into our
thinking process, we fail to recognize them even as we
fall right into them. For executives, whose success hinges
on the many day-to-day decisions they make or approve,
the psychological traps are especially dangerous. They
can undermine everything from new-product development
to acquisition and divestiture strategy to succession
planning. While no one can rid his or her mind of
these ingrained flaws, anyone can follow the lead of
airline pilots and learn to understand the traps and
compensate for them,” (Hammond, Keeney and Raiffa,
2006).
In most companies, strategic planning is often devoid
of real time decision-making. It can sometimes be an
exercise in documenting strategies and plan actions that
have already been made, often without the benefit of the
nuances of a critical thinking decision-making process.
The progressive firms are changing their approach to the
advanced analysis and assessment of organizational
course direction to improve planning, problem-solving,
and decision-making (Mankins and Steele, 2006).
To understand the value of managerial critical
thinking processes in organizations, think about the way
that most organizations conduct strategy reviews as
formal meetings between the middle and senior level
organizational managers. While these reviews are intended
to produce a fact-based dialogue, they often
amount to a little more than a “dog and pony show.”
Senior managers come in for a few days, get a superficial
presentation, socialize with the staff, and leave. The
middle management spends an inordinate amount of
time preparing information to explain or sell to senior
manager a course of strategy. The unit hopes to escape
with few unanswered questions and an approved course
of direction. Accordingly, middle administrators attempt
to control the flow of information upward, and senior
managers are presented only with the information that
shows each department in the best perspective. The
departmental successes are show-cased; the opportunities
are emphasized; and the threats are omitted or
marginalized. This style of planning and decision-making
hinders the senior managers from engaging in any
detailed information gathering or complex questioning.
These quick overview presentations do not provide the
type of valuable information that is needed for senior
managers to help in critical thinking in problem-solving
and decision-making. The most common obstacles to
decision-making in large companies are the disagreements
among the executives over the past decisions,
current alternatives, and even the facts presented to
support strategic plans. The leading companies structure
their strategy review sessions to overcome these
problems (Mankins and Steele, 2006).
Pursuing a competitive advantage and improving
the quality of service delivery can be a time-consuming
and fruitless search through the ever-expanding moun

Interested in a PLAGIARISM-FREE paper based on these particular instructions?...with 100% confidentiality?

Order Now